Friday, September 28, 2007

Brain-Eating Amoeba Kills Arizona Boy

PHOENIX -- A 14-year-old Lake Havasu boy has become the sixth victim to die nationwide this year of a microscopic organism that attacks the body through the nasal cavity, quickly eating its way to the brain.
Aaron Evans died Sept. 17 of Naegleria fowleri, an organism doctors said he probably picked up a week before while swimming in the balmy shallows of Lake Havasu.

According to the Centers For Disease Control, Naegleria infected 23 people from 1995 to 2004. This year health officials said they've noticed a spike in cases, with six Naegleria-related cases so far -- all of them fatal.

"This is definitely something we need to track," said Michael Beach, a specialist in recreational water-born illnesses for the CDC.
"This is a heat-loving amoeba. As water temperatures go up, it does better," Beach said. "In future decades, as temperatures rise, we'd expect to see more cases."


Organism Lives In Lake Bottoms

Though infections tend to be found in southern states, Naegleria has been found almost everywhere in lakes, hot springs, even some swimming pools. Still, the CDC knows of only several hundred cases worldwide since its discovery in Australia in the 1960s.

The amoeba typically live in lake bottoms, grazing off algae and bacteria in the sediment. Beach said people become infected when they wade through shallow water and stir up the bottom. If someone allows water to shoot up the nose -- say, by doing a cannonball off a cliff -- the amoeba can latch onto the person's olfactory nerve.

The amoeba destroys tissue as it makes its way up to the brain.

People who are infected tend to complain of a stiff neck, headaches and fevers, Beach said. In the later stages, they'll show signs of brain damage such as hallucinations and behavioral changes.

Once infected, most people have little chance of survival.

Some drugs have been effective stopping the amoeba in lab experiments, but people who have been attacked rarely survive, Beach said.

"Usually, from initial exposure it's fatal within two weeks,"

Researchers still have much to learn about Naegleria, Beach said. For example, it seems that children are more likely to get infected.

Texas, Florida Report Cases

In addition to the Arizona case, health officials reported two cases in Texas and three more in central Florida this year. In response, central Florida authorities started an amoeba telephone hot line advising people to avoid warm, standing water, or any areas with obvious algae blooms.
Texas health officials also have issued news releases about the dangers of amoeba attacks and to be cautious around water.

Beach warned that people shouldn't panic about the dangers of brain-eating amoeba. Infections are extremely rare when compared with the number of times a year people come into contact with water.

The easiest way to prevent infection, Beach said, is to simply plug your nose when swimming or diving in fresh water.

"You'd have to have water going way up in your nose to begin with" to be infected, he said.


Additionally

Just like amoebas in water, and the smallest of bacteria and viruses, these little buggers are often big trouble. Too often people brush-off mold in their homes and consider mold a non issue. I can tell you first hand how mold can make you sick for a long time. Don't underestimate the impact of mold or any pathogen. Treating your home for mold is much cheaper than paying medical bills.

Boston-Biosafety Cares

Monday, September 17, 2007

Multiple Sclerosis: Chronic Mycotoxicosis?

The evidence brought forth by various scientists over the years and compiled in a small section of this book is quite compelling. It is so compelling that, at this point, I believe scientists will be forced into a position of proving that mycotoxins are NOT the cause of MS. MS is characterized by destruction of the protective sheath- called the myelin sheath- around nerves in the brain and the spinal cord. As a result, the transmission of nerve impulses to other nerves, muscles, and vital organs is interrupted. This impaired nerve function translates into symptoms such as difficulty in walking, abnormal, "pins and needles" sensations throughout the body; pain and loss of vision due to inflammation of the optic nerve, tremors, incoordination, paralysis, and impaired thinking and memory (2). In addition, muscle wasting, bladder dysfunction, fatigue, osteoporosis, and a host of other problems may develop either directly or indirectly due to this nerve damage.

Although there is a genetic predisposition toward MS, as proven in studies of twins, only a third of those that are genetically susceptible will get MS, indicating there is still an outside factor involved (3). MS is more common in those born and raised above the 37th parallel (a line extending from Newport News, VA to Santa Cruz, CA); however, if a person moves to an area of low risk (i.e. below the 40th parallel) prior to adolescence, they assume the lower risk of their new location. These last points support the idea of an environmental exposure link to the disease.

Mycotoxins are chemicals made by fungi. They are found in grains that have been contaminated with fungi and mold. Some mycotoxins are used for medicinal purposes. Antibiotics, such as penicillin and the cephalosporin drugs, are fungal metabolites- they are mycotoxins. Alcohol is a mycotoxin. Aflatoxin, the most carcinogenic substance on earth, is a mycotoxin. The most commonly contaminated crops are peanuts, corn, and wheat.
Often, other foods such as barley, apples, sorghum and rye can be contaminated as well. Some mycotoxins are produced in our body by the yeast in our intestines or vaginal tract. In one study, 3 women severely symptomatic for vaginal candidiasis were found to have vaginal fluid samples with significant levels of a mycotoxin called gliotoxin (4). From our environment, we can be exposed to mycotoxins through countless routes: ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, etc.

We already know that, in MS, there is a loss of molecules called sphingolipids from the white matter in the central nervous system (5). What is not well known is the fact that mycotoxins can actually disrupt sphingolipid biosynthesis (6). Specifically, gliotoxin, as we mentioned above, on a slightly larger scale can induce nerve cell death (apoptosis).

Gliotoxin is a heat stable chemical made by Aspergillus, Candida, and other species of fungi. (7). Not coincidentally, scientists have recovered a heat stable toxin from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients. In this particular study, they took the CSF from MS patients, heat-treated it to destroy any infectious germs, and then exposed it to nerve cells in a laboratory culture. What happened? The nerve cells died! They called this heat-stable toxin "gliotoxin."
The source of gliotoxin appears to be, again, primarily from the yeast and fungi within the human body. As such, gliotoxin is less important as an agricultural scourge than are other mycotoxins such as fumonisins, made by Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi, and the penetrim D toxin made by Penicillium crustosum. Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that happen to be neurotoxic as well as carcinogenic. They are "universally present in corn and corn-based products." (8). Penitrem mycotoxins are found in things such as moldy apple products. Penetrem D can cause tremors, convulsions, limb weakness, and ataxis (unsteady gait), "not unlike the symptoms observed in MS." (9).

As there are different classes of MS (chronic progressive, relapsing-remitting, etc.) it may very well be that the different classes are being caused by different classes of mycotoxins. In addition, the regional differences in the prevalence of MS might be explained by the particular agricultural products that dominate the most affected areas. For example, the part of America that lies above the 37th parallel also happens to encompass the cornbelt. Remember that corn is universally contaminated with mycotoxins (7). This area is also represented by much of the wheat belt. Is this just a coincidence, or good evidence of an environmental exposure risk factor?

Let’s talk about some of the latest treatments for MS. Dr. Mercola has already stated in a previous article that most MS drugs are a waste of money (10). The new buzz on the town, however, is that statin drugs (cholesterol-lowering drugs) have proven effective in slowing the progression of MS (11-13). Their effectiveness should not surprise us, in light of the fungal/mycotoxin theory, when we also learn that statin drugs are antifungal (14).
Dr. Mercola has also mentioned in previous articles that Vitamin D as well as plain old sunlight can reduce mortality from and positively influence the immune system in MS (15,16). Other researchers have explained that the reason why these work is, once again, Vitamin D, whether taken in the form of a cod liver oil supplement or made naturally by our body from sunlight exposure, is anti-mycotoxin (14).

Last year a German researcher claimed that eating smoked sausage in childhood was responsible for causing multiple sclerosis later in life. (16). Dr. A.V. Costantini, retired head of the World Health Organization’s collaborating center for mycotoxins in food, helps us out here by explaining that smoked and aged meats are often contaminated with mycotoxins (18). Thus the cause of MS, according to these and other researchers, is right in our food.

In another of Dr. Mercola’s articles, he talked about how starving mice with an MS-like condition resulted in fewer symptoms and decreased progression of the illness (19). Why does starvation work? In our humbled opinion, it could be as simple as: the fewer foods taken in, the fewer mycotoxins that enter the body. You see, if we are following the standard, food pyramid, grain based American diet, we are consuming on average from 0.15 to 0.5mg of aflatoxin per day (8). Aflatoxin is the only regulated mycotoxin in America, so what level of exposure we have to the other, known mycotoxins in our diet that we’ve discussed is a guess, at best. So starvation diets not only deprive us of calories. They also "deprive" us of disease-causing, carcinogenic mycotoxins.

If indeed mycotoxins cause MS, then there are a number of steps one must take to minimize exposure to fungi and their mycotoxins. We just finished talking about diet. Since mycotoxins are commonly found in grain foods (7,8), then it would be wise to minimize grains in our diet. Doug Kaufmann outlines his Initial Phase diet in our book, The Fungus Link, Volume 2. As well, Dr. Mercola has published his book, The No-Grain Diet, which offers equally valuable information. Secondly, we should minimize our exposure to antibiotics.

Antibiotics are, for the most part, derived from fungi and are therefore classified as mycotoxins. If we’ve taken lots of antibiotics in the past, we should attempt to correct the damage done by these by taking a good probiotic supplement. Lastly, if we have any obvious signs of fungal infection in our body, and to us, simply having MS might qualify as an obvious sign, it might behoove us to take natural or prescriptive antifungals for a period of time. Remember that gliotoxin can be made by fungi and yeast that are already in the body, not necessarily by fungi that reside in contaminated foods.

Future research should be directed at treating the disease as if it were caused by fungi and their devastating mycotoxins.

Courtesy of David Holland, MD

Boston-Biosafety Cares

Friday, September 7, 2007

Mold / Antibiotics Linked to Asthma, Allergies

If allergies are making your life unbearable, the real culprit might not be your congested head; it could be the microbes in your gut.

Scientists from the University of Michigan Medical School presented findings from studies that involved laboratory mice. Results showed that antibiotics might be responsible for producing changes in microbes in the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn could impact the way the immune system responds to common allergens in the lungs.

Gary B. Huffnagle, associate professor of internal medicine, stated that antibiotics got rid of bacteria in the gut, which enabled fungi to take control until the bacteria grew back after the antibiotics were discontinued.

Researchers explained the relationship between the gastrointestinal, respiratory and immune system in the body by describing how with each inhalation, pollen and dust particles are trapped and enter the stomach with the production of saliva and mucus created as you swallow.

In other experiments, scientists found that fungi produced oxylipins, which are molecules that could determine the kind and severity level of immune responses. This supported the idea that fungal oxylipins in the GI tract helped avoid the production of regulatory T cells for ingested allergens. This caused T cells in the respiratory system to become susceptible to common allergens such as mold spores and pollen.

These factors combined result in a hyperactive immune response, which could result in allergy symptoms and in some cases, asthma.

This hypothesis was tested on mice who were administered oral antibiotics for five days and then given one oral introduction of the yeast called Candida albicans, which was used to reproduce a steady group of microbes in both the gastrointestinal system and intestines.

Findings from the study include:
The mice were injected with common mold spores two days after the antibiotics were stopped and possible allergic side effects were evaluated with both groups of mice, those that were given the antibiotic and those that were not.
The mice that were given antibiotics and exposed to C. albicans displayed higher rates of pulmonary hypersensitivity to A. fumigatus as opposed to the mice that weren't given any antibiotics.
Based on these findings, researchers concluded the changes to both the growth of bacteria and fungi within the GI tract disrupted the function of the regulatory T cells to lessen the immune system reaction to respiratory allergens. Researchers expressed hope that by learning how microflora in the GI tract impacted the immune system might hold the key to treating allergies with dietary changes or through taking probiotics, dietary supplements responsible for producing "healthy" bacteria, in order to regulate the microbes in the gut.

Researchers stressed the importance of following a nutritious diet complete with an abundance of raw fruits and vegetables after taking antibiotics as a way to speed up the process of bringing the microbes in the GI tract back to healthy levels.



Boston-Biosafety Cares